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About Screen Printing
SHORT HISTORY OF SERIGRAPHY PRINTING(*)
 
     Available findings say that the serigraphy printing technique is as old as the human history. However it is not certainly know when and how it was applied the very first time. Human first made patterns cutting shapes from foliage. They spread dye on the empty points of the patterns and printed to various places the shapes and designs of their desire. These printings made without using a frame and silk were called PATTERN PRINTING. Afterwards, the historical artifacts found in the printings on knitting and ornamentations in the Hawaii and Fuji Islands understood to be made from plant fibers, was an example that a different method was applied in printing.
The wall with a thousand annually past, floor and ceiling ornamentations and earthenware made using woven clothes in the ancient Egyptian, Romans, Japanese and Chinese epoch speak for the existence of evidences of the printing technique.
      In the Silk Screen Process Production printed in 1936 (USA), which is one of the oldest books written in this area, it is written as follows:” the Chinese of the Chinese Wall Epoch and Egyptians of the Pyramid Epoch have used the printing molds for printing on objects and fabrics and for the decoration of internal and external surfaces of the buildings.”
       The fact that the printings made by cutting of the patterns involved problems and were limited, brought the human in  a new search The Japanese made the printing first stretching the fabrics made knitted from human hairs on a frame and afterwards the hair strands were replaced by the pure silk made by the silk-worm, whereby the definitive date is unknown. Later the silk was replaced by synthetic silks, because silk is expensive.
 
    The shape to be printed into the frame was left at the beginning empty, and the other places of the frame were covered and penetration of the dye was prevented, thus it was started to make printings in multiple quantities.
 
     In the medieval this method was used for printing of play card. In the 16th century its was used for the reproduction of religious paintings and decorations of hand-written books, and in the 17th century it was used widespread for wall-paper printing.
 
 Serigraphy is the name of the international printing method. In English (Silk Screen-Silk Screen process), in French ( Serigraphie ) and in German ( Siebdruck). In our language it is commercially used as “Serigraphy” and in the art as “Unique Press”.
 
     The first findings of industrialization of the serigraphy printing are to be seen in the 17th century. Leading studies are seen in England, America and finally in Europe.
 
     First serigraphy pattern patent was obtained in 1907 in England by “Samuel Simon” and the first serigraphy machine patent was obtained by the American “Johl Pilsworth”.
 
     The first serigraphy printing company was established 1918 in London by “Edward A Owens”. The first textile machine using serigraphy printing system was built 1942 by “Joseph J.Adajian”. The first patent of printing silk covered with phosphor bronze metal on pattern silk was obtained 1920 in America by “Dr. Engelmann Sidney".

     First treatise regarding serigraphy printing was written 1930 by Antony Welonis. The interest shown to the printing works by "WPA (Works Progress Administration) increased the tendency to printing and printing shops.
 
    Wesselman, Leper, Hans Arp, Mortenscy Wasarely are nameable among the artists producing paintings with serigraphy printing. Great developments in the year 1940 in the printing area were realized by artists specialized in printing. Artists, i.e. German artist Fritz Winter et.al. have produced various printings where these innovations were applied.   "In France, 1947, colored silk printings were used in the Matisse’s book “Jazz”.

     These persons are not only the artists, teachers were the ones who ensured the wide-spreading of the serigraphy printing. They developed serigraphy printing as they used it.
 
     Later, the fact, that advertisement and logos were adopted by artists for the development of a graphic designs and different picture language, ensured the utilization of serigraphy printing in different areas. This widespread utilization increased the interest to serigraphy printing and ensured the development of its broad utilization.
November -2007 
 
 
 
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 Edited by: Birol FEDAI
 (*)Short history of serigraphy was edited by inscriptions with uncertain source. It is notified by the European Association of Serigraphy Agencies (FESPA) in 2008 that the history of serigraphy will be published as a scientific  book based on sources.
Produced by: Orion Medya